recall (how easily customer recall the brand without showing a cue while making purchase decision or thinking the product category). We must consider both the breadth and depth of the brand awareness; the depth is that how likely it is for a brand element to come to mind and a breadth is the range of purchase and the situations in which the brand comes to mind of the consumers. A brand we easily recall has a deeper level of brand awareness and breadth is related to the product knowledge in the memory of the consumer. So companies must consider or develop the product category structure for the brand or product hierarchy because customers always make a hiararchical decisio while purchasing some product or service, the first thing comes his/her mind is the product category then he/she goes further. So it is very important that consumers consider our brand in their desired product category while making purchased decision.
Primary ingredients and supplementary features
Product reliability, durability, and serviceability
Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy
Style and design
Purchase and usage situation
Personality and values
History, heritage and experiences
Brand Quality; brand attitudes generally depend on specific attributes and benefits of the brand.
Brand Credibility; judgements about the company or organization behind the brand. Customers may seen that wether the brand is competitive, innovative and market leader. The company always consider customers' priorities in mind and create interest and fun so that customers enjoying while consuming the brand.
Brand Consideration; customers think or consider the brand while making purchase decisions.
Brand Superiority; customers view the brand as unique and better that other.
Warmth; the brand
makes consumers feel a sense of calm or peacefulness.
Fun; makes cosumers feel amused, lighthearted, joyous, playful, cheerful, and so on.
makes consumers feel energised and they feel something special.
Security; the brand produces a feeling of safety, comfort, and self-assurance.
Social approval; consumers feel that others look favorably on their experience, behavior and so on.
Self-respect; consumers feel a sense of pride, accomplishment, or fulfillment.
Behavior loyalty; in terms of repeat purchase and the amout or share of category volume attributed to the brand.
Attitudinal attachment; customers should go beyond having a positive attitude to viewing the brand as something special in a broader context.
Sense of community; customers feel kinship or affiliation with other people associated with the brand.
Active engagement; brand loyalty occurs when customers are engaged, or willing to invest time, energy, money or other resources in the brand beyond those expended during purchase or consumption of the brand.
Cognitive-based approach (logics)
Affective-based approach (feelings)
Cognitive-based approachBrand salience – Brand performance – Brand judgements – Brand resonanceConsumers mainly focus on the performance of the brand and give importance to the features and benefits of the brand (tangible parts) while making decisions. So marketers msut consider the needs of customers who uses this approach while developing brands.Examples:
Haleeb (Sab se garha doodh), (chai bnaye khub) company focuses on the features and benefits of the brand.
Mobile brands, focus on attributes and features mainly
Hightech products that must demonstrate features by the company
Affective-based approachBrand salience – Brand imagery – Brand feelings – Brand resonanceConsumers more focus or interested in intangible aspects of the brand and attach the brand and develop feelings from their experiences. Marketers must focus on intangible aspects of the brand if they plan to touch/play with the emotions of consumers.Examples:
Reference:Strategic Brand Managemnet, third edition, Keller.
Coca-Cola uses the emotional approach while attracting consumers and so successful that it has capture the first position in the top brands' ranking of the world and has brand equity about 67 billion dollars.
Serf Exel (daag nahi tu seekhna nahi), (daag tu achay hotay hain) touchs the emotions of the customers by developing compaigns that contain fun, exicetment and ability to do something new.
Supreme tea ( yahi tu hai wo apna pun) communicates the family bonding
Dew (dew na kia tu phr kia jia) creates excitement (kar guzarne ki pyaas)