Oct 20, 2009

Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE)

The CBBE model approaches brand equity from the perspective of the customer – whether customer is an individual or an organization. The CBBE model provides a unique point of view as to what brand equity is and how it should best be built, measured and managed. The power of a brand lies in what customers have learned, felt, seen and heard about the brand as a result of their experiences over time. The big challenge for marketers is to ensure that customers have the right type of experiences with their products and services. In order to do this, marketers must develop marketing programs in way that best fit into customers' mind and linked the brand to the desire customers' feelings, thoughts, actions and beliefs. So that customer-based brand equity is defined as, the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand.
Customer-Based Brand Equity Pyramid

Brand Salience:
It's means broad awareness of the brand. The first step in building a brand equity is the brand awareness that contains two parts; brand recognitioin (how easily customer identify a brand after exposing some cue or a physical product) and brand
recall (how easily customer recall the brand without showing a cue while making purchase decision or thinking the product category). We must consider both the breadth and depth of the brand awareness; the depth is that how likely it is for a brand element to come to mind and a breadth is the range of purchase and the situations in which the brand comes to mind of the consumers. A brand we easily recall has a deeper level of brand awareness and breadth is related to the product knowledge in the memory of the consumer. So companies must consider or develop the product category structure for the brand or product hierarchy because customers always make a hiararchical decisio while purchasing some product or service, the first thing comes his/her mind is the product category then he/she goes further. So it is very important that consumers consider our brand in their desired product category while making purchased decision.
Brand performance:
It is describes how well the product or service meets customers' more functional needs. Brand performance directly related with the features of the product that differentiate it from others. Often, the strongest brand positioning relies on performance advantages of the brand. Five important types of attributes and benefits often underlie brand performance, as follows.

  1. Primary ingredients and supplementary features

  2. Product reliability, durability, and serviceability

  3. Service effectiveness, efficiency, and empathy

  4. Style and design

  5. Price

Customers view performance or measure performance in three ways: Reliability; mesures consistency of performance over time and from perchase to purchase, Durability; means the expected economic life of the product, and Serviceability; the ease of reparing the product if needed.
It is the secong part of brand meaning and also called the emotions part of brand meaning (Brand performance is the logic part). It mainly depends on the intrinsic properties of the product or service, including the way how well the brand attempts to meet the customers' psychological or social needs. Imagery refers to more intangible aspects of the brand, and customers can form imagery associations directly from their own experiences or through advertising or some other sopurce of information indirectly. Intangible aspects of the brand are as:

  • User profiles

  • Purchase and usage situation

  • Personality and values

  • History, heritage and experiences

Dempgraphics factors (gender, age, race, income, family) affect the first two types of aspects while pyschographics affect on the personality and values.
Brand judjements:
It is the third stage of the CBBE model which as also two parts or routes; brand judjement and brand feelings. Brand judjements are customers' personal opinions about and evaluations of the brand, which customers form by putting together all the different brand performance and imagery associations. Customers usually make four types of judgements as:

  • Brand Quality; brand attitudes generally depend on specific attributes and benefits of the brand.

  • Brand Credibility; judgements about the company or organization behind the brand. Customers may seen that wether the brand is competitive, innovative and market leader. The company always consider customers' priorities in mind and create interest and fun so that customers enjoying while consuming the brand.

  • Brand Consideration; customers think or consider the brand while making purchase decisions.

  • Brand Superiority; customers view the brand as unique and better that other.

Brand Feelings:
These are customers' emotional responses and reactions to the brand. The emotions evoked by a brand can become so strongly associated that they are accessible during product consumption or use. The following are six important types of brand-building feelings.

  • Warmth; the brand
    makes consumers feel a sense of calm or peacefulness.

  • Fun; makes cosumers feel amused, lighthearted, joyous, playful, cheerful, and so on.

  • Excitement;
    makes consumers feel energised and they feel something special.

  • Security; the brand produces a feeling of safety, comfort, and self-assurance.

  • Social approval; consumers feel that others look favorably on their experience, behavior and so on.

  • Self-respect; consumers feel a sense of pride, accomplishment, or fulfillment.

The final step of the model focuses on the ultimate relationship and level of the identification that the customer has with the brand. Brand resonance describes the nature of the relationship.

  • Behavior loyalty; in terms of repeat purchase and the amout or share of category volume attributed to the brand.

  • Attitudinal attachment; customers should go beyond having a positive attitude to viewing the brand as something special in a broader context.

  • Sense of community; customers feel kinship or affiliation with other people associated with the brand.

  • Active engagement; brand loyalty occurs when customers are engaged, or willing to invest time, energy, money or other resources in the brand beyond those expended during purchase or consumption of the brand.

Consumers while making purchasing decisions or choosing the brand, always use between two approaches or listen the brain (make the decision) in two ways:

  • Cognitive-based approach (logics)

  • Affective-based approach (feelings)

If we look the above fig. CBBE pyramid, we have seen that there are two paths or ways from brand salience to brand resonance and consumer always choose one from them.

  • Cognitive-based approach
    Brand salience – Brand performance – Brand judgements – Brand resonance
    Consumers mainly focus on the performance of the brand and give importance to the features and benefits of the brand (tangible parts) while making decisions. So marketers msut consider the needs of customers who uses this approach while developing brands.

    • Haleeb (Sab se garha doodh), (chai bnaye khub) company focuses on the features and benefits of the brand.

    • Mobile brands, focus on attributes and features mainly

    • Hightech products that must demonstrate features by the company

  • Affective-based approach
    Brand salience – Brand imagery – Brand feelings – Brand resonance
    Consumers more focus or interested in intangible aspects of the brand and attach the brand and develop feelings from their experiences. Marketers must focus on intangible aspects of the brand if they plan to touch/play with the emotions of consumers.

    • Coca-Cola uses the emotional approach while attracting consumers and so successful that it has capture the first position in the top brands' ranking of the world and has brand equity about 67 billion dollars.

    • Serf Exel (daag nahi tu seekhna nahi), (daag tu achay hotay hain) touchs the emotions of the customers by developing compaigns that contain fun, exicetment and ability to do something new.

    • Supreme tea ( yahi tu hai wo apna pun) communicates the family bonding

    • Dew (dew na kia tu phr kia jia) creates excitement (kar guzarne ki pyaas)

    Strategic Brand Managemnet, third edition, Keller.


  1. Really great strategy you have shared on online marketing. Thanks for sharing such type great points on CBBE.

  2. Thanks for the great points on online marketing as we can't ignore brand name while doing online marketing.

  3. Great view on Customer Based Brand Equity Model (CBBE). Thanks for sharing such a deep point of online marketing.
    Thank you.


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